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Sevan Terzian, co-chairs. Erik Black, chair. Kristin Heathcock : Just-in-case or Just-in-time? Thomasenia Adams, co-chairs. Thomasenia Adams, chair. Albert Ritzhaupt, co-chairs. Linda Jones, chair. Rose Pringle, chair. Nevertheless, even four years later, in , CSc degrees were still being awarded in Ukraine. This practice indicates the slow implementation of educational reforms. Furthermore, the Bologna Declaration does not anticipate any advanced doctorate at all so preserving the DSc degree is a clear indication of the unwillingness on the part of the Ukrainian government to break with the Soviet past.
In , the Ukrainian government issued a special order that set out the major changes that needed to be implemented in doctoral education. The length of study associated with a doctoral programme has changed. A PhD programme will now take four years, replacing the three years of study associated with a CSc degree. At the same time, the length of the DSc programme was reduced from three to only two years.
The number of journal articles required for the defence of a doctoral degree was changed too.
Other cosmetic, formal and insufficient changes have yet to produce any real improvements in the system of doctoral education. Given the slow pace and inconsistency of educational reforms, Ukraine is unlikely to contribute greatly to the global creation and transfer of knowledge in the near future.
This lesson may be extended far beyond the current and former Communist regimes. A highly bureaucratised and overly centralised system of state control does not prevent private firms from selling dissertations and doing so on the open market. Nor does such a centralised and highly regulated system prevent customers from acquiring doctoral degrees in corrupt ways. High levels of corruption in the country facilitate trade in ghost-written dissertations as long as the personal benefits to clients exceed the costs of acquiring a doctorate.